about_operators - PowerShell command help and examples

Describes the operators that are supported by Windows PowerShell. (about_operators)

Describes the operators that are supported by Windows PowerShell.
An operator is a language element that you can use in a command or expression. Windows PowerShell supports several types of operators to help you manipulate values. Arithmetic Operators Use arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /, %) to calculate values in a command or expression. With these operators, you can add, subtract, multiply, or divide values, and calculate the remainder (modulus) of a division operation. You can also use arithmetic operators with strings, arrays, and hash tables. The addition operator concatenates elements. The multiplication operator returns the specified number of copies of each element. For more information, see about_Arithmetic_Operators. Assignment Operators Use assignment operators (=, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=) to assign one or more values to variables, to change the values in a variable, and to append values to variables. You can also cast the variable as any Microsoft .NET Framework data type, such as string or DateTime, or Process variable. For more information, see about_Assignment_Operators. Comparison Operators Use comparison operators (-eq, -ne, -gt, -lt, -le, -ge) to compare values and test conditions. For example, you can compare two string values to determine whether they are equal. The comparison operators include the match operators (-match, -notmatch) to find patterns using regular expressions; the replace operator (-replace), which uses regular expressions to change input values; and the like operators (-like, -notlike), which find patterns using wildcard characters (*). They also include the bitwise operators (-bAND, -bOR, -bXOR, -bNOT) to manipulate the bit patterns in values. For more information, see about_Comparison_Operators Logical Operators Use logical operators (-and, -or, -xor, -not, !) to connect conditional statements into a single complex conditional. For example, you can use a logical -and operator to create an object filter with two different conditions. For more information, see about_Logical_Operators. Redirection Operators Use redirection operators (>, >>, 2>, 2>, and 2>&1) to send the output of a command or expression to a text file. The redirection operators work like the Out-File cmdlet (without parameters) but they also let you redirect error output to specified files. You can also use the Tee-Object cmdlet to redirect output. For more information, see about_Redirection. Split and Join Operators The -split and -join operators divide and combine substrings. The -split operator splits a string into substrings. The -join operator concatenates multiple strings into a single string. For more information, see about_Split and about_Join. Type Operators Use the type operators (-is, -isnot, -as) to find or change the .NET Framework type of an object. For more information, see about_Type_Operators. Unary Operators Use unary operators to increment or decrement variables or object properties and to set integers to positive or negative numbers. For example, to increment the variable $a from 9 to 10, you type $a++. Special Operators Use special operators to perform tasks that cannot be performed by the other types of operators. For example, special operators allow you to perform operations such as running commands and changing a value's data type. & Call operator Description: Runs a command, script, or script block. Because the call operator does not parse, it cannot interpret command parameters. The call operator, also known as the "invocation operator, indicates that the value it precedes is a command. This enables you to run commands stored in variables and represented by strings. Examples: & "new cmdlet" $c = "get-executionpolicy" & $c . Property dereference operator Description: Accesses the properties and methods of an object. Examples: $myString.length $myString.substring(1,3) . dot sourcing operator Description: Runs a script so that the items in the script are part of the calling scope. For more information, see about_Scope. Example: . c:\scripts.sample.ps1 Note: The dot (.) symbol is also used as the parent directory symbol, as in this example: .\sample.ps1 This command runs the sample.ps1 script, but not as part of the calling scope. :: Static member operator Description: Calls the static properties operator and methods of a .NET Framework class. To find the static properties and methods of an object, use the Static parameter of the Get-Member cmdlet. Example: [datetime]::now .. Range operator Description: Represents the sequential integers in an integer array, given an upper and lower boundary. Examples: 1..10 10..1 foreach ($a in 1..$max) {write-host $a} -f Format operator Description: Formats strings by using the format method of string objects. Enter the format string on the left side of the operator and the objects to be formatted on the right side of the operator. Examples: C:\PS> "{0} {1,-10} {2:N}" -f C:\PS> 1,"hello",[math]::pi 1 hello 3.14 $( ) Subexpression operator Description: Returns the result of one or more statements. For a single result, returns a scalar. For multiple results, returns an array. Examples: $($x * 23) $(Get-WMIObject win32_Directory) @( ) Array subexpression operator Description: Returns the result of one or more statements as an array. If there is only one item, the array has only one member. Example: @(Get-WMIObject win32_logicalDisk) , operator Description: As a binary operator, the comma creates an array. As a unary operator, the comma creates an array with one member. Place the comma before the member. Examples: $myArray = 1,2,3 $SingleArray = ,1 SEE ALSO about_Arithmetic_Operators about_Assignment_Operators about_Comparison_Operators about_Logical_Operators about_Type_Operators about_Split about_Join about_Redirection C:\Windows>powershell get-help about_parameters -full

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